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under: Week 15
under: Week 15

Please submit your final version of the research proposal accompanied by the questionnaire/survey/research tool you are going to use for retrieving your data. The following resources may help you in the process.






under: Week 14

For this lecture, please refer to the following link:

Steps in formulation of a research problem :
Working through these steps presupposes a reasonable level of knowledge in the broad
subject area within which the study is to be undertaken. Without such knowledge it is
difficult to clearly and adequately ‘dissect’ a subject area.
Step 1 Identify a broad field or subject area of interest to you.
Step 2 Dissect the broad area into sub areas.
Step 3 Select what is of most interest to you.
Step 4 Raise research questions.
Step 5 Formulate objectives.
Step 6 Assess your objectives.
Step 7 Double check.

The definition of a variable:
An image, perception or concept that can be measured – hence capable of taking on
different values- is called a variable.
The difference between a concept and a variable:
Concepts are mental images or perceptions and therefore their meaning varies markedly
from individual to individual.

A concept cannot be measured whereas a variable can be subjected to measurement by
crude/refined or subjective/objective units of measurement.
It is therefore important for the concept to be converted into variables.

    • Title.
    • Background/information.
    • Literature review.
    • Aims and objectives.
    • Methods.
    • Timetable.
    • Data analysis.
    • Ethical issues.
    • Resources.


    • Informed Consent.
    • Respect for privacy.
    • Confidentiality and anonymity of data.
    • What is permissible to ask?
    • No harm to researchers or subjects.
    • No deceit or lying in the course of research.
    • Consequences of publication.


under: Week 13
  1. Do not forget to bring with you three A4 sheets of paper.
  2. Print and bring with you the Essay Proposal you submitted on the Course Blog with your name and surname on it.
  3. Click here to register for your preferred schedule.
under: Week 12

The purpose of this assignment is to get you ready to write an excellent essay within a limited amount of time, and to allow you to get feedback before writing it.

The essay will be written in the 50-minute timeframe of the second Midterm Exam that is going to take place on Wednesday, 11 January, 2012, starting from 08.00. If you do not submit an essay proposal by Monday, 9 January 2012, then you will get a 0 for both the essay proposal and the essay itself.

You may find some additional help with your outline on the following article written by Jerry Plotnick: Organizing an Essay.


Please select your topic from the Essay Topics page on our course website (click here).

under: Week 12

Add a ‘hook’ to the introduction of your most recent essay on language policy. Before submitting it, underline and label the element you have inserted that will make your reader enough curious to want to read further on in your essay.

You will find some notes for today’s lecture on the course website, under Week 10.

under: Week 10

Write an essay on the topic: Should we adopt a strict policy for the Albanian language? Discuss using Green, White, Yellow, and Black hat thinking.

The following is a definition of language policy according to http://www.languagepolicy.net/.

Language Policy (n.)

1. What government does officially – through legislation, court decisions, executive action, or other means – to
(a) determine how languages are used in public contexts,
(b) cultivate language skills needed to meet national priorities, or
(c) establish the rights of individuals or groups to learn, use, and maintain languages.    

2. Government regulation of its own language use, including steps to facilitate clear communication, train and recruit personnel, guarantee due process, foster political participation, and provide access to public services, proceedings, and documents. 

The preservation of linguistic diversity has become a major concern to many researchers, politicians and leaders of linguistic communities. Some forecasts indicate that more than half of the six thousand languages currently spoken could disappear during the twenty-first century. Language policies have a deep impact on the life of languages and both their theoretical and practical aspects should be examined. There also is a need to assess the new cultural, social, political, economic and technological factors affecting linguistic diversity at a global scale. More than 230 researchers, social actors, policy makers and people involved in the promotion of languages took part in the debates offered by the World Congress on Language Policies which was organised by the Linguapax Institute, in co-operation with the Governments of Catalonia and the Balearic Islands, the Cultura de Paz Foundation and Forum 2004.

Source: http://www.linguapax.org/congres/indexang.html

Reading material:

  • Erida Prifti ‘Is the Albanian Language Headed Toward Extinction’ Fitzwilliam College, University of Cambridge, UK.
  • E. Annamalai ’Language policies in multilingual societies’
  • Tove Skutnabb-Kangas ’Language policies and education: the role of education in destroying or supporting the world’s linguistic diversity’
  • Lachman Khubchandani ’Demographic imperatives in language planning’
  • Emmanuel N. Emenanjo ’Language policies and cultural identities’
  • Peter Mühlhäusler ’Theoretical approaches to language planning’
  • Zeynep Beykont ’English Only Laws in the US’
  • Aleksandra Gjurkova ’Language policy and minority language issues: An interactive relation’
  • Tamara Borgoyakova ’Language law in Russia: models of implementation in Tyva and Khakassia’
  • Robert Dunbar ’Minority language legislation and rights regimers: a typology of enforcements mechanisms’
  • Miyawaki Hiroyuki ’Colonial language policy and their effects’
  • Alfred Matiki ’Language planning and linguistic exclusion in the legislative process in Malawi’
  • Angel Pachev ’Europeanisation trends and linguistic diversity’
  • Uldis Ozolins ’Post-imperialist language situations. The Baltic States’
  • Snezana Trifunovska ’International legal aspects of protection of minority languages in Europe’
  • Joan Rubin ’From Assimilation Toward Accommodation in Montgomery County’
  • Davyth Hicks ’Scotland’s linguistic landscape: The lack of policy and planning with Scotland’s place-names and signage’
  • Karita Laisi ’Comparing the language policy change in Guatemala and Ethiopia’
  • Nijolé Merkiené ’Language planning and practice: the Lithuanian model’
  • Leila Dodykhudoeva ’The sociolinguistic situation of the Autonomous Region of Gorno Badakhshan’
  • Tariq Rahman ’Language teaching and power in Pakistan’
  • Jerzy Smolicz, I. Nical and M. J. Secombe ’Assimilation or Pluralism ? Changing Policies for Minority Languages Education in Australia and the Philippines
  • Janis Valdmanis ’Relevance of economic factor in language policy in major cities of Latvia’
  • Vida Mikhalchenko ’Language Policy in the Russian Federation’
  • Vic Webb ’Language policy development in South Africa’
  • Tatiana Agranat ’The beginning of the Votic language revival’
  • Tatiana Kryuchkova ’Effective language politics. The case of Karelian’
  • Aisa Bitkeeva ’Language Policy in the Republic of Kalmykia’
  • Ina Druviete ’Language policy and protection of languages in Latvia’
  • Özlem Eraydin Virtanen ’Language policy and international relations: The Central-Asian experience’
  • Rainer Enrique Hamel ’Language Policies in NAFTA, Mercosur, and the EU: Regional Blocs as a Barrier against English Hegemony?
  • A.Coretchi, A. Pascaru, C. Stevens ’The Republic of Moldova : Dimensions of the Gagauz sociolinguistic model’
  • Atanasia Stoianova ’National Minorities Education in Moldova: the Legal Framework and Practice’
  • Dónall Ó Riagáin ‘Irish- official yet lesser used’
  • Mart Rannut ’Estonian language strategy in progress’
  • Bojan Brezigar ’Role of civil society and NGOs to promote minority languages’
  • Denis Cunningham ’Civil society and language policy: A role for associations’
  • Alie van der Schaaf ’Developments in bilingual education in Europe’
  • Kara Brown ’Between two Unions: The revival of Võro in Post-Soviet and Pre-European Estonia’
  • David Ferguson ’Practical and theoretical difficulties for NGO action for language equality in a European perspective’
  • Joe MacDonnacha ’Power differentials in language planning’
  • Martha Muntzel ’Educational philosophy and minority languages’
  • Mary McGroarty ’Niches for minority language use: What does civil society support?
  • Diana Rumpite ’Teamwork in Virtual Environments – Effective Approach in Language Learning’
  • Olga Kazakievitch ’A sounding dictionary of an endangered language’
  • Monica Ward ’Using new technologies to produce language material for minority and endangered languages
  • Victor Montviloff ’Meeting the challenges of language diversity in the information society’
under: Week 9

A language is considered “extinct” when it no longer has any native speakers.  It is considered “dead” when its structure and syntax are “frozen in time” and the language no longer adapts to contemporary circumstances.

Do you think borrowing words from other languages, especially English, will bring the Albanian language towards extinction?

State your opinion on this topic through a four or five-paragraph essay that reflects blue hat, white hat, black hat, and red hat thinking. You may use square brackets to label your ideas, as in the following example:

[Black Hat] A person who wants to act as a clown will experience greater difficulties in being taken seriously by his/her peers.

Follow-up reading: http://univlora.academia.edu/EridaPrifti/Papers/289490/A_Po_Shkon_Gjuha_Shqipe_Drejt_Zhdukjes

under: Week 9

Within Edward de Bono’s Six Thinking Hats process, Black Hat Thinking explores ways that an idea may not fit the situation, problems we may need to overcome, faults, or why something may not work. During Black Hat Thinking we consider obstacles, existing or potential downsides, and concerns.

The single word that best describes the nature of the Black Hat is “caution.” If we are not cautious, we risk damage, danger, and disaster both for ourselves and for others. Black Thinking Hat protects us from harm.

  1. Exploring Lack of Fit
  2. Looking at faults
  3. Scanning for Potential Problems
  4. Assessing Yellow Hat Output

Click here for more details.

Preschool children explain the Six Thinking Hats Framework (click to watch video)

H-1B Visa: America’s Secret Weapon (click to watch video)


under: Week 10

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